Co-creation can be seen as any act of collective creativity (Sanders & Stappers, 2008); as the partnership between different actors to jointly realise value (Osborne et al., 2016; Brandsen et al., 2018). Co-creation requires participation, whereby the form of participation and the role of the participant within the partnership may differ. KEMs in this category help to engage, connect and streamline the process, analyse and understand the context of issues, and develop new propositions. Co-creation can be initiated for various reasons: for example, to ensure that the various requirements and limitations are identified (functionality / interests), because complementary knowledge, resources or competences must be brought together (this is essential given complexity), or because a value chain and good innovation can then be developed (value or innovation-driven) and / or because the stakeholders have the right to be involved (value-driven). The process can be aimed at viewing the current situation or have a focus on the desired (future) situation.