1.3 Categories of KEMs

In this agenda we present eight categories of KEMs that are indispensable in the context of tackling societal challenges and shaping transitions. Each category represents a collection of methods, processes and strategies related through the purpose for which they are deployed. For example, the category Behaviour and empowerment stands for all those methods and strategies that can be applied to develop an intervention with which (desired) behaviour can be influenced, adjusted or made possible. Although not an exhaustive list, these eight categories cover the main areas of KEMs for the realisation of the missions. These are the eight categories that are detailed in the subsequent chapters:

Vision and Imagination (Chapter 2) Every mission requires that we know where we are headed. Sometimes that goal is obvious, but more often it is necessary to design that goal, make an inspiring vision of the future visible and tangible by using imagination, and in doing so, give direction to change. KEMs in this category help map today's world, imagine new worlds, and view phenomena and problems differently.

Participation and co-creation (Chapter 3) Missions involve many players with diverse interests. From citizens and companies to governments and domain experts. You want to involve them in the process, for the knowledge and experience they bring to the table, to enable them to take the initiative and to achieve commitment and support. KEMs in this category help to engage stakeholders, to go through the process systematically, to analyse and understand the context of issues, and to develop new propositions.

Behaviour and Empowerment (Chapter 4) In order for a transition to succeed, a behavioural change is often required. For example, to eat less meat or to fly less. In addition, people must be enabled to make conscious choices and be empowered to take control themselves. KEMs in this category help develop, test and validate an intervention to change people's behaviour directly (via motivation) or indirectly (via influence).

Experimental environments (Chapter 5) Transitions are not easy to manage, and related issues are often surrounded by uncertainties and ambiguous information. In the early stages of the innovation development process, space is needed to experiment. Further down the process, there must be room to test and adjust the effects of developed interventions in simulated and / or real-life contexts. KEMs in this category help set up these experimental environments and provide methods of work and experimentation.

Value creation and upscaling (Chapter 6) Current societal challenges require effective interventions and upscaling of innovations in a relatively short term. The speed with which transitions can be realised goes hand in hand with the ability and speed to create new value for society. The (changing) relationships in ownership and profit play a role in this, and issues surrounding management and governance come into the picture. KEMs in this category help to structure this process, and to validate and test it at an early stage.

Institutional change (Chapter 7) In addition to the wishes and possibilities of citizens and stakeholders, the organisation in and around the contexts of transition issues also has a crucial influence on the desired changes. Institutional change is a response to technical and social changes and at the same time these changes can in turn bring about institutional change. KEMs in this category provide insight into the behaviour of institutions and help develop appropriate structures and procedures for changes.

System change (Chapter 8) Transitions require a transformation or overturning of an existing system. Systems are characterised by the fact that they are difficult to define and are unpredictable. Moreover, systems have a multitude of elements and (mutual) relationships and thus form a complexity that is difficult to control or change. Development for and on systems is therefore a dynamic issue. KEMs in this category help to operate in a system-oriented and future-oriented way, and to elicit debates and feedback.

Monitoring and effect measurement (Chapter 9) Due to the long horizon and the unpredictable nature of (changes to) systems, it is particularly relevant for transition issues to monitor and (intermediately) evaluate the effects of interventions. In this way, knowledge is gained about the possible effects of the manner in which an intervention was made, which can be directly fed back into the process, in order to support iterative further development and adjustment. KEMs in this category help to measure the effects of interventions and monitor the impact on the system.

The eight categories are conceptually easy to distinguish. However, methods in one category sometimes have properties related to methods in another category and / or methods from different categories are often used in combination. For example, we see that some experimental environments are specifically suitable for user participation and / or co-creation and a process of system change often cannot be done without a previously compiled vision for the future. The most common connections between the eight categories are indicated below. These connections don’t necessarily say something about the order in which the methods are ideally used in an innovation process. The nature of a chosen change process or transition strategy requires a specific sequence regarding the use of these KEMs.

The eight KEM categories are described in detail in chapters 2 to 9 of this agenda. In addition to an overview of the current (scientific) state of affairs in the development and application of KEMs, each chapter discusses the most important themes and questions that should be addressed in future research. This agenda is therefore explicitly a research agenda.

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