10.3 Cohesive application
Transition challenges are complex and comprehensive, and require thoughtful use of KEMs in tackling them and in the development of interventions and / or innovations. Several KEM categories will often be relevant to a challenge and methods from several categories will be required to achieve a successful process and result.
These different methods may each be deployed in a different phase of the process, but it will regularly happen that methods are combined in the context of a specific challenge. The trick is to choose such a mix of methods that optimal synergy is achieved. As mentioned in Chapter 1, this requires experience and craftsmanship in selecting and applying the KEMs; a practitioner must be well aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the different KEMs, be able to properly assess when which KEMs may or may not reinforce each other, and understand how they can be combined and adapted.
There are a number of KEMs that already house these combinations in themselves due to their generic character; they therefore belong in several categories. Examples are reflexive monitoring (see categories System change and Monitoring and effect measurement) and transition arenas (see categories System change and Participation and co-creation). Both (groups of) methods were discussed in two categories in this agenda. Each category does have its own view of the method and that perspective presents different challenges / research questions.
In the chapters of this agenda, connections between the KEM categories are indicated, either implicitly or explicitly. They are also visualised in Chapter 1 and Figure 2. Because the correct use of combined methods and the resulting synergy can contribute to a successful approach to complex issues, it is recommended to pursue these kinds of interactions between KEM categories in the development and implementation of KEMs. That is why we would like to end here with a number of examples of relationships between categories and ways in which KEMs from these categories can reinforce each other.
Vision formation, participation and value creation Framing a joint innovation task (shared vision development) can only lead to successful interventions if it finds support among stakeholders. By devoting attention in a co-creation process with the stakeholders to creating a basis for shared values (shared meaning), a perspective of a future desirable for each party can be developed to help create this support.
Participation and experimental environments In the process of co-creation in multi-stakeholder settings, experimental environments offer a relatively ‘safe’ environment, because the feasibility and scalability of initiatives can be tested in a flexible way so that learnings can be immediately fed back into the development process. It is also possible to explore in experimental environments how participation and co-creation can work for settings in which these methods are new, as is now seen in the Policy Labs (exploration of citizen participation in government).
Institutional change and behavioural change The context in which behaviour is established is colored by institutions, among other things. In addition, the rhetoric of institutional change is often that it provides incentives to individuals in the hope of behavioural change. Institutions and behaviour are therefore almost inseparable. Current behaviour is related to current institutions and the effectiveness of institutional change always depends on behavioural change. For example, the effectiveness of imposing additional taxes on meat, with the aim of reducing meat consumption, ultimately depends on whether people actually change their behaviour.
System change and monitoring KEMs aimed at learning about the system and system change are inextricably linked with KEMs to monitor the same system and the effects of interventions. Through reflexive monitoring, insight into the progress of system change can be used to adjust the goal and strategy of the change. In addition, the use of the right monitoring methods can help to map and understand the long-term effects of interventions on system changes.