As early as the 1970s, the Club of Rome explored the limits of our world systems and their limitations on human numbers and human activity. This resulted in the report Limits to Growth in which computer simulations showed that there is a limit to economic growth and population growth (Meadows et al., 2004). Instead of economic growth, governments should focus on resilience and adaptation. The COVID-19 crisis could not clarify more how important it is to our society that we develop systems that are resilient: that can adapt or can transform as soon as the environment requires it. This requires innovation capabilities from organisations, but also system properties of society itself, such as diversity and flexibility. We therefore need methods that answer questions such as: how can we increase the adaptivity of a system? How can we better develop transdisciplinary action research in this context? How can we better monitor and understand system change in the long term? How can we organise the government, private sector, science and society as a learning system?