6.2 State of the art
The current state of methodology development for value creation and upscaling of innovative services and applications is to a large extent a reflection of the development of thinking about science, technology and innovation policy. This means that the methods that emphasise the creation of economic value by (networks of) companies on the basis of (the upscaling of) innovations still play a prominent role. In doing so, they focus on individual companies, value chains and networks of companies and on regional and national innovation systems. Over the years, however, there has also been a development in which mission-driven innovation themes are introduced.
For example, the Business Model Canvas introduced by Osterwald and Pigneur (2010) is still an important tool for companies to develop their value proposition and to gain insight into the alignment of their business activities with customer needs or renewed insights into the core values ​​that drive the organisation itself ( purpose). In cases of innovation of the business model and the portfolio, this often leads to business model re-development: adjusting the value proposition, the business model and realising the created value because of a new customer base. This includes the Brand Driven Innovation by Roscam Abbing (2010), which connects brand, innovation and design to help companies build people-oriented brands that match their vision and values. Within these approaches, methodologies are often used that are derived from the design discipline or science, such as the principle of the customer journey or user journey: going through the steps of a (potential) user from consideration of purchase to eventual use, so as to discover how a (broader) group of users can be served (Følstad & Kvale, 2018). Another example is (service) design thinking, in which, through an iterative process, a greater eye for and understanding of end-user problems and situations is obtained, in order to gain insight into the way in which design results can influence their specific contexts (Cross , 2013).
Research and development of methods to innovate and scale up in the context of networks is quite advanced. Several conceptual frameworks, methods and tools are available. The concept of ecosystem plays an important role in this (see, for example, Adner, 2012). Methods are mainly used to understand the complexity of multi-stakeholder settings and to create a basis for shared values, goals and actions. Stakeholder analysis provides insight into actors who can exert an important stimulating or counteracting force on innovation and upscaling. Another known method in such situations is agent based modeling. One method to map out the value network within a consortium and to ensure alignment, for example, is the value case methodology (Dittrich, 2015, Dittrich et al., 2015).
Frame analysis is also used for a better understanding of underlying values ​​in different actors. In line with these approaches, is the business model radar. In principle, this is a multi-stakeholder business model approach based on the so-called service dominant logic.
‘S-D logic is essentially a value co-creation model that sees all actors as resource integrators, tied together in shared systems of exchange – service ecosystems or markets. In this way markets are characterised by mutual value propositions and service provision, governed by socially constructed institutions.’ (Vargo, 2011, p220).
A so-called value-in-use approach is central to the elaboration of a joint idea of ​​and for value creation. More specifically, an approach referred to as orchestrating innovation (Valkokari et al., 2017) that helps design, set up and run an innovation hub, often a strategic public-private partnership. The approach includes a general reference business model for all variants of an innovation center (including an experimental environment) and training for the leader of such an initiative.
Approaches and methods of value creation and upscaling that fit within the framework of transformative innovation often touch upon themes such as sustainability and circularity. One of the contributions that has laid an important foundation was that of Tukker (2004) in which he tests eight product-service systems on their environmental value. In an extensive literature review, Bocken et al. (2019) provide an overview of circular business innovation tools (see also: Lüdeke-Freund et al., 2016; Lüdeke-Freund et al., 2019). In our country, various researchers and professionals are active in developing services and products that build on this, including in the CIRCO project and within design companies such as Active Cues that develop products for more inclusive healthcare. In both cases, value creation is involved in combination with upscaling, which in these cases mainly has the character of replication.
Both projects were presented during a session at CLICKNL Design Drive 2020, under the theme Creating Industries: enabling societal transitions.
Other developments that are relevant to the development of value through transformative innovation are so-called collaborative business models that can be developed and realised within the scope of a transition (CBM4T) and the increasingly emerging commoning models, in which different independent actors (individuals and organisations) can work together. manage a resource and further develop it with the aim of creating optimal common use. Complexity theory can be of value for methods aimed at multi-actor value creation, which are also relevant here. A characteristic of methods for value creation and upscaling aimed at transformative innovation is that they have an interdisciplinary foundation. They are often developed in a field that is developing: transition studies.
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